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PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
 


ABSTRACTS OF PROCEEDINGS OF 43RD CONFERENCE SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

12-15 MAY, 2009
MADIBA BANQUET HALL, POTCHEFSTROOM, NORTH WEST PROVINCE



DEFINING PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURE

Eweg, M.
Abstract


Partnerships come in many varied forms and are often derived out of a need to provide a service or develop business in an area where the primary mover has a dearth of skills or expertise. Partnerships evolve and may be specifically time referenced to be terminated once the objectives of the partners have been achieved or modified.

A partnership is loosely defined as a business entity in which partners or owners share the profits or losses of their investment, a practice that can be both highly rewarding and at the same time risky. It is this risk that this paper will attempt to define and give insight into the areas to be considered and traversed with caution when developing, designing and signing contractual partnership agreements. Defining the rules of the game, are of vital importance before the game begins, and this is true in partnerships.

This paper will review literature drawing on the experience of partnerships as well as mergers and acquisitions in order to derive a little experiential learning sketching parallels to the shifting South African Agricultural context. This paper however will not make specific reference, but will rather be an overview in seeking to encourage partnerships as a means of deriving greater achievement. It will further explore what defines or constitutes a partnership; more importantly what some of the factors are, that would enhance and make partnerships successful.

South Africa as indeed many parts of the world are in a food deficit position, and there is likely to be a continued onslaught on the scarce resources available to meet Global food demand. How can partnerships mitigate this through the pooling of resources, knowledge, co-operation, collaboration and experiential learning of others?

When going into any business partnership, selection of a trustworthy partner is imperative, and there should be no compromise on this as governance and stewardship are priority requirements in successful production systems.

If Agriculture is to succeed into the 22nd century, we the agriculturalists need to act smarter allowing the farmers to do what they do best.

DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTNERSHIP: “THE LAST FRONTIER”

Malan, W.
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation and no abstract is available.

KEYNOTE ADDRESS: PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: A COMMERCIAL PERSPECTIVE

Laubscher, K.
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation and no abstract is available.

FARMER’S PERSPECTIVE OF ESSENTIAL PARTNERSHIPS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Serfontein, J.
Paper was not available when CD’s were burnt.


DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIPS IN PRACTICE: THE WOOL INDUSTRY

De Beer, L.
Abstract


The National Woolgrowers’ Association of SA (NWGA) is a producers’ organisation and represents wool farmers of South Africa. These members produce more than 80% of the national clip of just below 50 million kg/annum. The NWGA is one of only a small number of producer organisations that has a Production Advisory Service with qualified, experienced field- and administrative personnel, focusing on wool sheep farmer development in the commercial and emerging farming sectors. This Production Advisory Service was established within the structures of the NWGA in 1997 (from the former Wool Board) and has been restructured to address the needs of all wool sheep producers. Partnerships with various role-players have subsequently been negotiated and formalised. This paper aims to briefly discuss these partnerships and to provide some insight into their role in an extensive development approach.

SUCCESSES AND FAILURES AS EXPERIENCED BY NWK LTD WITH RELATION TO PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Janse van Vuuren, A.
Abstract


NWK Ltd is an agricultural company situated in the North West Province. The main focus of this company is to provide financing, production inputs and agricultural related services, as well as grain handling and marketing services to farmers. Since 1994 a growing number of developing farmers in the province have emerged – all with the same basic support needs. Of these, financing of production inputs proved to be the major constraint in their development and many were not able to make any progress in farming because of the lack of funds. Other constraints that were identified include a lack of knowledge, insufficient training and a seriously insufficient and broken down mechanisation ability. These constraints and the fact that NWK could not handle the challenges alone, led NWK to reach out to other role players in financing and agriculture with the hope to get specialists on board in order to curb the effect of the constraints. A number of valuable partnerships were formed and the project is now regarded as a successful agricultural development programme.

Keywords: developing agriculture, partner, training, developing farmer

COLLABORATION BETWEEN CRI AND THE LIMPOPO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

Mbedzi, A.
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation and no abstract is available.

SENWES AS A PARTNER IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Du Toit, J.
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation and no abstract is available.

ROLE OF MENTORSHIP IN COTTON COMMODITY ORGANISATION

Macaskill, P. Q.
Visualise a 3-legged African cooking pot steaming on a fire and see the parallel with successful cotton farming;

THE INVESTIGATION OF PARTNERSHIP MODELS IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP):

A CASE STUDY:
ILAM PROVINCE. IRAN


Poursaeed Alireza, Mirdamadi, Said Mehdi, Malekmohammadi, Eraj, Hossaini, Said Jamal Farajollah Abstract Selection of the appropriate partnership models for agricultural development has become an important issue in Iran. Using data from Ilam province of Iran, the purpose of this paper is to use analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for selecting between the three competing partnership models (private, public and cooperative) which have been developed based on the general tenets. Environmentalists, board members of rural cooperative, rural development and experts from Ilam (Agricultural Organization, University, Natural resource and environmental organization) participated in application of AHP to this study.

They applied AHP to determine the priority of Private, Public and cooperative partnership models based sustainable agricultural development. Each group determined the priority of the three models for sustainable agricultural development. The findings indicated that ecological, social, Economical and Cultural criteria are the most important criteria for sustainable agriculture of Iran.

A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the critical factors that affected the priority of alternatives. The results indicated that Cooperative partnership based sustainable agricultural development model has a higher priority as the theoretical base of agricultural development of Iran.

LOCAL “IS LEKKER”: THE DYNAMICS OF LOCAL PARTNERSHIP DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE COMMUNITIES, CRCE/UNIVERSITY OF LIMPOPO, THE LIMPOPO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND LOCAL MUNICIPALITIES

Letsoalo, E. M. and Mollel, N. M.
Abstract


This paper shares the experiences of the Centre for Rural Community Empowerment’ in forging partnerships within rural communities and between the Limpopo Department of Agriculture and the local municipalities. CRCE have been operating in two pilot sites, Ga-Mothiba and Mafefe rural communities following three strategies viz; Action research, Documentation and Networking. Through these three strategies various structures within the two communities collaborated with the university and the Limpopo department of Agriculture in the development of their own communities.

The two communities established local forums where traditional authorities, various community groups, local service providers, local municipalities, CRCE and the Department of Agriculture are members and partners in the development process. The two forums developed into platforms where the communities and service providers shared valuable experiences and ideas.

Through this partnership two development centres have been established within the two communities. One is a multipurpose centre and the other is a youth development centre. These two local forums are members of a regional forum called Small Scale Farmers Networking Forum. The learning's from the development of the partnership are discussed in the paper.

PROMOTING PARTNERSHIPS IN EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EFFECTIVE LINKAGES

Düvel, G. H.
Abstract


Today hardly anybody questions the appropriateness and even necessity of partnerships in extension and rural development. Differences in opinion still occur as to whether partnership is seen as a normative goal as such or still a transitional phase towards full ownership of the development process by the communities or beneficiaries. Anybody well acquainted with the practical extension situation in South Africa will know that there is much room for improvement in this regard, in fact it seems as if in many cases mere lip-service is paid to partnerships in extension. The assumed premise of this paper – with the focus on the advisory or extension agent and farmer (client) partnership – is that effective partnerships are only possible and will only be successful if the necessary institutional and linkage structures are in place.

After clarifying the relationship between the concepts of partnership and participation, and providing a brief motivational background regarding the necessity of partnerships between service providers and community, the principles of effective linkage structures are presented with empirical support and evidence from a national research study in search of appropriate extension approaches and sponsored by the National Department of Agriculture (Düvel, 2002). The concepts of partnership and participation are closely intertwined and not easy to separate from each other, but the emphasis of this paper is – in line with the topic of our conference – on partnership between advisory agent and community (farmer), and partially on the partnership between service providers.

USE OF INNOVATION SUPPORT FUNDS TO CREATE CONDITIONS FOR SMALLHOLDER FARMERS TO INNOVATE: PRELIMINARY INSIGHTS FROM A PILOT IN SOUTH AFRICA

Mudhara, M & Ngubane, N.
Abstract


Overtime, smallholder farmers have adapted and developed innovations to allow them to be productive under their own difficult environments. Development practitioners have realized the need to, not only take this knowledge into consideration but to build upon it. The Farmer Support Group (FSG), the outreach unit of the Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development at the University of KwaZulu-Natal uses participatory action research to facilitate farmers to identify and experiment with innovations to address their problems. Furthermore, FSG and its partner organizations in PROLINNOVA (a group of governmental and non-governmental organizations seeking to promote local farmer innovations) have identified the need to give farmers more space in which they have greater ownership of the innovation process, i.e., identification and execution, propagation, with minimal input from development agents. In South Africa, PROLINNOVA, through FSG and its partners, is piloting an innovation support facility for smallholder farmers. Through this pilot, farmers are provided with financial resources for them to conduct activities that can result in enhanced innovativeness and the development of innovations.

This paper details the key elements in the process of setting up a pilot innovation support fund, and the institutional framework for the administration of the funds. It also discusses the activities that have received support, with particular attention to why they qualify to be innovations, as opposed to ordinary practices. Experiences and lessons to date, such as number of proposals submitted for funding, nature of submissions, and strengths and weaknesses of the activities proposed for enhancing innovations and characterization of those who propose, are presented.

PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF THE ISOYA RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Jibowo, A. A.
Abstract


To obtain significant results in improving the qualities of lives of people in rural communities, establishing partnerships between various development institutions is a sine qua non. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss partnerships in agricultural extension and rural development activities in the Isoya Rural Development Project, implemented by the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information used in the paper was based on the experiences of the author as the Project Director for six years, and a member of the Project Implementation Committee for five years. The active life of the project was 11 years (1972-83). Literature on the project was also consulted. Some data collected and analyzed between October 2008 and February 2009, to determine the perceived effectiveness of the project, were also used. Three categories of partners were involved in the project. These included local partners that were the various academic departments within the university, and traditional authorities in the township that had jurisdiction over the rural communities; State and Federal Government Ministries, institutions and parastatal organizations; and international partners. While all the partners benefited in one way or the other from the partnership, the local people were the main or target beneficiaries. The benefits derived included learning improved crop production practices; formation and management of cooperative associations; access to production credit; guaranteed market for farm produce; improved health services; functional literacy; use of appropriate technology; improved goat production practices; improved nutrition of children; home beautification; increased incomes and levels of living. In conclusion, although partnerships in agricultural extension and rural development involve a number of institutions and organizations, the leading partner has to play a major role in planning the project, coordinating efforts of the partners, motivation of other partners, evaluating accomplishments, and sustainability of the project.

KNOWLEDGE AND UTILIZATION OF JOB ENRICHMENT TECHNIQUES AMONG DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL OFFICERS IN BOTSWANA

Oladele, O. I., Subair, S. K. and Sebina, N. V.
Abstract


The need for diversification of the economy from being mineral dependent and the daunting food import bills in Botswana have been the drive for the provision of extension services to farmers. Agricultural sector is faced with limited funds, inadequate skilled manpower to carry out research and disseminate information to farmers; existing staff are not motivated to perform at optimum level, hence performance with productivity declines with time. Structuring jobs and roles correctly is very important in elevating the motivation of employees, which is addressed by job enrichment which is an important ingredient to reinforce the motivational factors. Using a random sampling technique, this study examined the Knowledge and utilization of Job enrichment techniques among District Agricultural Officers in Botswana. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire that has a reliability coefficient of 0.85 using the split-half technique and were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages correlation and multiple regressions. The result shows that the knowledge of job enrichment techniques was moderate among district officers as they are currently experience low extension agent farmer ratio. The use of job enrichment techniques was facilitated by the organization structure for extension delivery in Botswana. Also, significant relationships were recorded between knowledge and utilization of enrichment techniques (r = 0.72) while important predictors of job enrichment utilization are information sources on job enrichment (t = 2.79), educational level (t = 2.07), age (t = -2.86) and years of experience (t = 2.89). The paper recommends that training should be provide to District Agricultural Officers on job enrichment and other job related concepts in order to improve performance among extension agents.

FACILITATING PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMERS THROUGH MOBILE PHONES USAGE IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

Ogunlade, I, Adebayo, S. A. and Ogundiran, T. J.
Abstract


The demand for poultry product is on the increase in Nigeria due to the ban placed on its importation by the government. Commercial Poultry Farmers (CPF) are farmers who are faced with management challenges to meet with demand. Public extension agency which offers free services to Nigerian farmers on all aspects of agricultural development have limited in personnel which could not cover all farmers. Mobile phones have the potential of bridging the gap between service providers ‘and commercial poultry farmers thereby reducing management expenditure and provide avenue for easy access in innovations and markets. This study therefore examined the attitudes and training needs of commercial poultry farmers to the use of mobile phones in Kwara State, Nigeria.

Eighty percent of the members of Poultry Farmers Association (PFA) of Nigeria Kwara State chapter were randomly selected for the study. A validated questionnaire which covered the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, attitude to the use of mobile phones and training needs was administered to respondents.

The socio-economic characteristics measured consist of gender, age, household size, marital status, years in poultry business, type of poultry produce and ownership of mobile phones. The attitude was measured with 8 items of use of mobile phones for poultry management practices placed on 5 point Likert type scale of Strongly Agree (SA) to Strongly Disagree ?(SD), respondents having a minimum score of 9 points and maximum of 45 points. Thereafter the items were ranked. Training needs were determined by using FAO’s scale which cumulate the mean score frequency of use and difficulties in the use of mobile phones. The data were analyzed, by using frequency, percentage, ranking, mean and multiple regression analysis.

The finding show that majority of the commercial poultry farmers were 60% males, had household size of 6 people, 90% married, more than 84.6 is who had post secondary education, 59.6% had put in more than 5 years in poultry business, about 40% produced a combination of layers, and broilers/cockerels, majority (75%) had Nokia mobile phones and identified cheapness, hardiness and durability as important reason for their choice, in all, farmers had positive attitude to the use of mobile phones with sourcing market for poultry products ranked 1st, booking production stock ranked 2nd, procurement of feed/ feed ingredients ranked 3rd among others. The farmers need training on browsing, calculating, setting alarm for operations and taking pictures for documentary purpose. Their brand of mobile phones serves as barriers to these services.

The paper concluded that commercial poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria have positive attitude to the use of Mobile Phones for efficient production management.

Communication is an essential ingredient for making and sustaining partnership. It recommended that training be mounted by extension agency for commercial poultry farmers on browsing, saving information and taking of pictures for documentation purposes.

FARMER-LED DOCUMENTATION AS A POSSIBLE TOOL FOR IMPROVED PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND FARMERS: A CASE STUDY IN MAFIKENG

Vorster, H. J., Letty, B., Malinga, M. & Chiloane, N.
Abstract


Farmer-led documentation (FLD) enables farmers to document their experiences and helps them share these experiences with others. At a food security pilot project between 4 communities near Mafikeng, ARC-Roodeplaat and NW DACE, new crop technologies were tested using participatory selection and evaluation techniques at Kgora Resource Centre. In the second phase farmers took their training and crops to their communal gardens to evaluate in their own local situations. ARC-Roodeplaat and the South Africa branch of PROLINNOVA (an international network that promotes local innovation and farmer-led approaches to research and development) decided to co-ordinate efforts with the Mafikeng stakeholders to test the use of FLD in North-West as part of NW DACE's introduction to participatory, farmer-based extension techniques. The paper discusses the possibility of FLD as a tool to help strengthen farmer-extension-research partnerships, as well as the lessons learnt from this experience.

A workshop was held to train all stakeholders on what FLD encompasses and its potential. Extension officers received training on FLD project planning. Farmers were trained on the use of digital camera's, general camera maintenance and principles for taking of effective photographs. They also participated in a session that focused on identifying subject matter for documentation, based on the farming activities that they envisaged being involved with. Farmers then had an opportunity to take photographs and the results were reviewed and discussed the following day. Plans were then made for photographs to be downloaded once a month when ARC personnel visited the communities to monitor progress with the farming activities and provide training where needed. Community members identified digital photographs they wanted to print (each member may develop 50 photographs over the growing season) and these were to be used to share their experiences, innovations and lessons with each other during the feedback sessions.

There was initial confusion on the use of the camera, with many farmers not entirely sure on what was expected from them in terms of subject matter as well as the process of sharing the cameras .The distance of both ARC and PROLINNOVA partners from Mafikeng was an inhibiting factor as this could only be addressed two months later. Prioritisation of extension agendas and lack of access to a laptop tended to limit the inputs that the local extension officer could provide in terms of supporting the FLD process. In addition, since extension personnel had only been introduced to the concept together with the farmers, extensive support was not possible. After PROLINNOVA partners met with the farmers in their fields and had more discussions about the concept of FLD within their own context, farmers started documenting their experiences with more confidence. The quality of the photographs, considering that none of the community members had ever taken a photograph before, improved dramatically. The PROLINNOVA partners will have an interim meeting with the farmers to address any problems they may be encountering, prior to a feedback session that is to take place one week before the conference in May. The outcomes of the feedback session will be included in the results discussed in the paper.

Utilising FLD effectively as a tool to stimulate sharing and feedback needs a strong, easily accessible, support system for farmers. This ensures that problems are addressed fast and that no documentation opportunities are lost while uncertainty or equipment failure is experienced. Farmers started to realise the extent of their own innovativeness. They recognised that they have developed their own ways of doing things and were eager to share this with others. This became possible with the documentation process as they did not lose the opportunity to share experiences when visitors visited at the wrong time in their production cycle. FLD is an excellent tool to help farmers and service providers share their knowledge, enthusiasm and point of view with each other. This helps the groups to understand each other better and facilitates a more participatory, needs-based approach to training and development.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE MNGCUNUBE “HANDS-ON” MENTORSHIP PROGRAMME FOR SMALL-SCALE STOCK FARMERS IN THE EASTERN CAPE

Jordaan, A. J., Sissons, D. and Blaker, J.
Abstract


The Elundini livestock improvement programme covers livestock owners in 80 villages of the Elundini Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape. The Livestock Project is in full conformity with the Ukhahlamba Growth and Development Strategy (GDS) and the District IDP.
Since its conception in April 2007 the project by end 2008 had reached 359,764 SSU through a schedule of visits to 662 villages at which farmer attendance had totalled 7,697. The actual number of farmers then was 2,541 and SSU were 136,416, noting that the same farmers and livestock come to more than one village visit so attendance figures are higher. Participating farmers spent R25,886 on their stock in the above-mentioned period.

This paper provides a critical review of the operational structures and people actively in daily contact with the farmers; the methods of data capturing and data analyses are evaluated; the impact on individual farmers and the impact on the economy of the region are evaluated. The research concluded that the results of the mentorship programme by far exceeded the expectations, to such a degree, that the reliability of the data was under suspicion. It became clear during the research that data capturing had been done with precision and great care.

Data for the first 18 months of the project clearly showed a reduction of mortality rates for sheep and goats from more than 20% to as low as 3% per annum. Lamb weaning and kid weaning rates were approximately one lamb for every two ewes (50%).

Individual farmers were able to increase their annual cash income from as little as R1,440 to R20,577 per annum. The net financial gain of all the project farmers adds up to more than R6 million per annum.

This research concluded that the hands-on approach and strict discipline as basis for farmer mentorship is an example of good practice to be followed by extension workers and other developmental agencies. The results were evident from the onset of the project and the immediate financial gain to farmers ensured their continued participation in the project. In addition to the direct benefits to farmers, new business opportunities were created for village mentors.

The paper also proposes that the principle of free extension should be re-visited since small-scale farmers are willing to pay for quality and reliable services.

PARTNERING TO GAIN CONTROL OVER DISEASE IN THE MPUMALANGA SUGARCANE GROWING REGION

Mkhwanazi, S. Bhengu, B. & Mavimbela, F.
Abstract


The irrigated sugarcane growing region of Mpumalanga province in South Africa produces a substantial portion of the sugarcane grown in the country. Severe ‘smut’ infestations were threatening the entire region with a potential to spread to other regions and cause substantial crop losses. These losses could be catastrophic and would deprive farmers of income as well as reduce the mill throughput, threatening the ability of more resistant varieties to survive the pressure.

The combined efforts of TSB milling (TSB), the Department of Agriculture and Land Administration (DALA), the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI), and the affected sugarcane farmers (growers) in a partnership campaign against this sugarcane smut epidemic has turned the dire situation around in a relatively short period of time.

This paper introduces the significance of the region, defines the problem, and the methodology that was used by extension workers to educate, provide training and carry out field action to make the change, effectively saving an industry.

NATURE AND EXTENT OF GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VELD FIRES IN THE WATERBERG DISTRICT DURING 2008

Bornman, M. & Nealer, E. J.
Abstract


Integrated public governance is one of the challenges of Government. The importance of governmental departments, NGOs and stakeholders working together in a coordinated and well managed manner in times of natural and man-initiated disasters, cannot be emphasized enough.

During 2008, in the handling of veld fires in the respective areas of Alma, Rust de Winter and Dwaalboom in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province, different scenarios of integrated public governance manifested themselves. This paper will, based on the overarching governmental legislation regarding agricultural public service rendering, also identify the place and role of governmental relations as vehicle to bring about more effective, efficient, economic and sustainable public management on the grass-roots level of a regional area. The vital role of the Agricultural Extension Officer (AEO) and his / her supporting office in the management of agricultural related crises will also be highlighted.

In order to judge the nature and extent of the aforementioned, the outbreak of serious veld fires in the three areas of the District will be described from which some logical conclusions will be drawn and valid recommendations identified which hopefully will achieve more effective, efficient, economic and sustainable integrated regional public governance and cooperation during future risks and disasters in the Province.

A CHARACTERISATION OF SUCCESS FACTORS OF PROJECTS FUNDED BY THE COMPREHENSIVE AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT PROGRAMME IN THE FREE STATE PROVINCE

Idsardi, E., Jordaan, H. van Schalkwyk, H. D. Abstract

The aim of the Department of Agriculture’s (DoA) Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP) is to provide financial post-settlement support to the beneficiaries of land reform. To date, no comprehensive, formal evaluation of the Programme has been conducted at project level.

During 2007, 109 CASP funded projects in the Free State province were assessed. This assessment included a questionnaire of which the data was used to develop a rating system on the viability of the selected projects. The overall aim of this study is to gain insights in the characteristics of successful and sustainable agricultural development projects to ultimately refocus support rather than predicting success.
A regression analysis was conducted to explain the variation in the success ratings. The results show that eleven variables have a significant influence on success. A comprehensive financial administration system was found to be the most significant variable characterising projects with a higher score on the success and sustainability scale.

JOINT PLAN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT (ARD) TRAINING EXPERIENCE

Netshipale, A. J., Mashiloane, M. L., & Motsei, M. L.
Abstract


It is known that livelihoods of the poor can not be sectoralised and addressed by focusing only on individual developmental dimensions. Developmental agenda necessitates cooperation and contribution from various institutions, if they are to yield desirable results. The question that remains is: can a joint plan for sustainable development be attained? This paper examined the phases in the joint developmental planning process of the Agricultural Research for Development (ARD) implemented in Kono and Khuis restitution farms of the Northern Cape in 2005. Focus was on challenges associated with initiation, facilitation and consolidation of the joint developmental plan and a review of other related papers on development initiatives. An objective review of the plan was conducted. Problem and proposed solution identification were indicated as constraints of the initiation phase. Ability or skills limitation and logistics were indicated for facilitation while conflict of objectives and representatives’ authority, were indicated for consolidation. It was concluded that a joint plan for sustainable development can be achieved given the alleviation of the discussed challenges.

MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES AND LEADER¬SHIP STYLES ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSFUL GAME RANCH MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA

Louw, L., Louw, M. J. & Lategan, F. S.
Paper was not available when CD’s were burnt.

PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOP¬MENT: LESSONS FROM THE NEW ZEALAND EXPERIENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

Botha, C. A. J.
Abstract


The paper provides background to partnerships in agricultural development from a post-privatisation perspective, using New Zealand as a case study. Agriculture is important to New Zealand as it contributes about 20% of national GDP. Two large philosophical shifts occurred simultaneously in New Zealand: one in land use and the other in extension. There was shift from agricultural production to productivity and a shift from technology transfer to participation. Both were significant. Partnerships in agricultural production are funded through central and local government. In addition there are also industry organisations and consultants that also contribute to these partnerships though their own networks and funding arrangements. Agricultural productivity is well looked after through these partnerships but it has been shown that there is a gap in the New Zealand R&D system in terms of consultants and their interaction with the RD&E system. Agricultural consultants are playing a minimal role in proactive environmental extension market forces in this area are weak. The New Zealand experience demonstrates that private agricultural consultants will fill the gap left by government extension services in terms of supporting farmers in their decision making about productivity improvements. However, privatised extension can also result in discontinuities – particularly in relation to the adoption of public and industry funded R&D and in relation to addressing environmental issues.

ALTERNATIVE SUPPLIERS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN MALI: IMPEDIMENTS TO SUSTAINABLE COLLABORATION

Akeredolu, M. & Koné, M.
Abstract


This paper identifies alternative service providers of agricultural extension services in Mali to include: NGOs, farmer organizations, public and Para public structures, training institutions and research institutions. An analysis of the various forms of collaboration between government agricultural extension system and NGOs, farmer organizations, public, semi public and research institutions is also presented in the paper. Also discussed are the roles of research institutions and public extension service in meeting the special training needs of agents in charge of Agricultural Extension. The paper also analyzes the existing impediments to effective private/public collaborations in the Malian context.

These analyses show that private providers of agricultural extension services are many and varied, and cover the entire Malian territory. The NGOs are numerous and active in several areas including agriculture, breeding, fishing, forestry with agro-business firms much fewer. In addition, majority of the NGOs, farmer organizations, public para- public institutions, training and research institutions play important roles in the delivery of agricultural technologies and techniques as well as offer opportunities for collaboration. However, majority of these structures especially NGOs do not have sufficient financial means to meet training needs of their agents and producers. Impediments such as political, structural, financial and strategic hinder collaboration between service providers in Mali. All service providers along the value chain including processing and marketing should be recognized, with more community participation in creating a network of service providers in Mali.

ACTION RESEARCH: A PRACTICAL STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROFESSIONALS

Mutimba, J. & Khaila, S.
Abstract


Agricultural extension professionals lag behind their counterparts in research and training institutions with regard to conducting research and generating new knowledge. This is mainly because conventional research methods are not appropriate for field practitioners whose main preoccupation is improving livelihoods of farming communities. However the success of field extensionists depends on their ability to identify and exploit opportunities for improvement. They therefore need research methods and approaches that enable them to generate reliable data and information which they can use to solve farmers’ problems. Given that the role of extension is basically to ensure that farmers have appropriate knowledge and skills, there is need to continuously find out whether farmers indeed have appropriate knowledge and skills, whether they apply appropriate knowledge and skills and reasons why they may not be applying appropriate knowledge and skills. Based on the findings, the extensionists will be able to identify the action required to improve upon the existing situation. This calls for knowledge and skills in action oriented research. This paper provides simple, easy to follow, step-by-step guidelines which should be suitable for many situations in extension research – whether one is researching adoption of an enterprise, an extension approach or the functioning of a farmer organization. The guidelines are based on the experiences we have had from running in-service, custom-made, degree programmes for mid-career extension professionals at Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, as well as at other universities in East Africa.

TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES AND TACTICS FOR EXTENSION RECOVERY

Mudau, K.S., Geyser, M., Nesamvuni, A.E., & Belemu, N.D.
Abstract


Extension recovery plan breathed new life into extension. This new initiative by the Department of Agriculture (DOA) has already left a mark as extension officers are mobilized to register for junior degrees and other relevant short courses. The inducement has also been coming through bursaries and other support services towards extension. In Limpopo province, extension services remain a key support services for the development of effective farmer organizations and suitable technological innovations. While the DOA intervention towards extension would have remarkable impact in reviving extension, the challenge remains as to how much would be the impact on the ground. Would the success of the program be translated into enhanced service delivery? Effective and efficient extension in terms of justifiable goals should be the responsibility of any extension services. With the existing situation, for them to join the main stream of South African economy, the smallholder farmers are expected to produce sufficiently and work as good entrepreneurs. The study shares on the successes of the recovery plan when coupled with relevant extension methodologies and strategic partnerships. The study shows how Vhembe and Mopani districts in Limpopo province benefited from embracing commodity approach, value chain analysis and participatory extension approaches.

HOW TO DO RESEARCH POSTERS

Vorster, I.
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation and no abstract is available.

FARMERS’ STRATEGIES AND MODES OF OPERATION IN SMALL HOLDER IRRIGATION SCHEMES OF SOUTH AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF MAMUHOHI IRRIGATION SCHEME IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE

Mudau, K.S., Geyser,M., & Nesamvuni, A.E.
ABSTRACT


The overall objective is to assess the sustainability and more specifically, the economic viability of smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa in a context of irrigation transfer. The White Paper on Agriculture (1995) has clearly indicated the government ‘s intention to withdraw subsidies previously enjoyed by farmers and to ensure that real cost of natural resources are reflected in the pricing of resources in order to discourage abuse. This has resulted in the enacting of new laws like the New Water Act of 1998, which is aimed at sustainable water management. This includes the rehabilitation of infrastructure before transfer and the establishment of farmers Water Users Associations, which are to take over ownership and collective management of the schemes. These issues pose a challenge to extension. The challenge is whether such farmers will be able to pay for water and other services and make decisions collectively with all the constraints they are faced with. For instance, they lack money, expertise and lack good cohesion among themselves. Challenges and uncertainties like these also motivated this study. The study concluded that there is a need for certain economic, technical and institutional evolutions in the cropping systems if farmers have to match changes brought by the revitalisation of irrigation schemes, which include irrigation management transfer.

FARMER PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) VARIETIES: AN ON-FARM EXPERIENCE IN RESIDUAL MOISTURE SITUATIONS OF ORISSA

Satish-Kumar, G. D.
Abstract


India has nearly 100 m operational holdings, of which over 75% belong to the small farm category (i.e. 2 ha or below in size). The farmers who operate these holdings work under complex, diverse and risk prone (CDR) environments. The smaller the farm, the greater is the need for marketable surplus, so that the farm family can have some cash income. Consequently adoption of improved varieties, improved package of practices and value addition become essential for strengthening the household food and livelihood security in rural India. However, it appears from the socio-economic surveys that the advances in breeding improved varieties had not benefited in increasing the adoption of the improved varieties by the CDR farmers.

After the decades of formal plant breeding efforts, the adoption of high yielding varieties (HYVs) is disappointing not only for resource poor farmers, but for India as a whole. Farmers in the marginal agricultural environments are not exploiting an enormous potential economic benefit from the adoption of HYVs. If 50% of the farmers having average farm holdings were to adopt HYVs in 10% of the districts that currently have less than 50% adoption, the increase in production would have an estimated value, which runs into billions. Extrapolating the logic to whole India, the economic return from a higher adoption of HYVs is much greater.

The HYVs cultivated by farmers in India are about 15 years older than in a very efficient system, suchas UK where it is 3 years. In groundnut the average age of HYVs adopted by the farmers is more than 15 years for whole of India and more than 9 years for developed States suchas Gujarat and more than 20 years for States suchas Orissa. Hence, there are good reasons to employ the innovative approaches suchas Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) to improve the appropriateness of the varieties to the CDR farmers. FPR is an approach, which involves encouraging farmers to engage in experiments in their own fields so that they can learn, adopt new technologies and spread them to other farmers.

When the scientists and the farmers work together, to improve the agriculture by learning from each other, they begin to understand the differences between their views and knowledge systems. Working together, respecting each other's freedom results in bridging the gap between these differences creates opportunities to develop solutions that respond to the requirements and felt needs of farmers. Solutions oriented towards felt-needs of farmer based on their freedom to choose have greater potential for adoption and for achieving desirable changes in their livelihoods.

The farmer's participatory varietal evaluation offers alternative choices of varieties to farmers and verifies the performance of improved genotypes under farmer's conditions in comparison to the research station trails. The farmer has the liberty to choose from a basket of choices based on his/her own criteria. The paper describes our experiences with the FRP approach.

Groundnut is a major oilseed crop of Orissa, which accounts for 57% of total oil seed production of the state. The total area under groundnut in the state was 0.90 lakh ha, of which 0.52 lakh ha was grown during rabi season under residual soil moisture situation immediately after harvest of kharif rice. The major constraint for rabi groundnut cultivation was lack of awareness on improved varieties and non-availability of quality seed. Farmers grow traditional variety AK 12-24. Hence, the present study was conducted with the following objectives 1. To identify suitable groundnut variety for residual soil moisture situations of Coastal Orissa during rabi season using FPR approach and 2. To demonstrate the potential of NRCG seed storage method. The study was funded by the National Agricultural Technology Project under the sub-project "Management of coastal agro-ecosystem affected by super cyclone of Orissa".

The two districts Cuttuck and Puri from Orissa state, one block from each district, Ersama and Astaranga, respectively were selected based on the maximum extent of damage caused due to the cyclone. Eight villages from each block making a total of sixteen villages were selected based on maximum extent of damage due to the cyclone. The farmers were selected by two-stage sampling method. A total of three hundred and ninety-two OFTs were conducted for two years during 2002-03 and 2003-04. The farmers were provided four varieties of groundnut viz., Smruti, GG 2, TAG 24 and K 134. These varieties were compared with the farmers’ traditional variety AK 12-24. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview schedule by personal interview of the farmers. The descriptive statistics such frequency and percentages were used to analyze the data. The yield gap (YG) and yield gap index (YGI) were estimated.

The discussions with individual farmers during 2002-04 indicated that farmers from Cuttuck expressed a very strong overall preference for the Smruti over their own variety, as well as other improved varieties tried under the OFTs. The results of these comparisons showed that the reasons for this preference in Ersama block were the relative earliness of this variety combined with its higher pod yield. During the group discussions farmers further indicated that Smruthi had higher haulm yield, bold seeds and tolerant to insect-pests such as Aphids and Jassids. The farmers post-harvest yield measurements confirmed these results.

It is our experience that the type of OFTs described here, combined with an attitude towards learning and understanding from farmers by researchers, provides new information for assessing the overall usefulness of an improved variety. The present study reiterated the usefulness of FPR as an extension research tool. The farmers were provided with a basket of options to choose from, based on their wisdom and experimentation they preferred Smruti, GG 2 and TAG 24. Apart, from increased pod yield, farmers considered the fodder yield, early maturity and suitability to their specific situation as the criteria for their decision.

In addition to FPR, the support and active participation of state department of agriculture is needed to improve the adoption of improved groundnut varieties. The NRCG storage method has to be popularized in the region to makeup for the non-availability of quality seed. Further, the short duration varieties of rice (to facilitate early sowing of groundnut during rabi) may be popularized in the region. Thus, FPR is of particular use in the identification of relevant research issues and in the adaptation of technologies to specific local circumstances. Farmer's participation is a key element to successful FPR, but it takes the unwavering commitment of the researchers to make it an effective extension research tool.

31. IMPACTS OF THE SUPERMARKET REVOLUTION ON SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROFESSION

Mongane, T. H. E.
Abstract


The rise of supermarkets within the developing world has grown significantly from the mid-1990s. This growth/trend was largely spurred by factors such as an increase in foreign direct investment and changes in consumers’ taste and preferences. Currently, supermarkets are taking control of the marketing of f, and impose their own standards on producers. In most cases only commercial farmers are able to meet these standards and therefore reap the rewards of operating within this market, whilst small-scale farmers cannot. This paper explores the impacts of the supermarket revolution on small-scale farmers and address how the extension agent can meaningfully play a role in assisting small-scale and emerging farmers access these markets.

 
 
 
 
 
 

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