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PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACTS OF PROCEEDINGS OF 43RD CONFERENCE SOUTH AFRICAN
SOCIETY FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
12-15 MAY, 2009
MADIBA BANQUET HALL, POTCHEFSTROOM, NORTH WEST PROVINCE
DEFINING PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURE
Partnerships come in many varied forms and are often derived
out of a need to provide a service or develop business in an
area where the primary mover has a dearth of skills or
expertise. Partnerships evolve and may be specifically time
referenced to be terminated once the objectives of the
partners have been achieved or modified.
A partnership is loosely defined as a business entity in
which partners or owners share the profits or losses of
their investment, a practice that can be both highly
rewarding and at the same time risky. It is this risk that
this paper will attempt to define and give insight into the
areas to be considered and traversed with caution when
developing, designing and signing contractual partnership
agreements. Defining the rules of the game, are of vital
importance before the game begins, and this is true in
This paper will review literature drawing on the experience
of partnerships as well as mergers and acquisitions in order
to derive a little experiential learning sketching parallels
to the shifting South African Agricultural context. This
paper however will not make specific reference, but will
rather be an overview in seeking to encourage partnerships
as a means of deriving greater achievement. It will further
explore what defines or constitutes a partnership; more
importantly what some of the factors are, that would enhance
and make partnerships successful.
South Africa as indeed many parts of the world are in a food
deficit position, and there is likely to be a continued
onslaught on the scarce resources available to meet Global
food demand. How can partnerships mitigate this through the
pooling of resources, knowledge, co-operation, collaboration
and experiential learning of others?
When going into any business partnership, selection of a
trustworthy partner is imperative, and there should be no
compromise on this as governance and stewardship are
priority requirements in successful production systems.
If Agriculture is to succeed into the 22nd century, we the
agriculturalists need to act smarter allowing the farmers to
do what they do best.
DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTNERSHIP: “THE
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation
and no abstract is available.
KEYNOTE ADDRESS: PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: A
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation
and no abstract is available.
FARMER’S PERSPECTIVE OF ESSENTIAL PARTNERSHIPS FOR
Paper was not available when CD’s were burnt.
DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIPS IN PRACTICE: THE WOOL INDUSTRY
De Beer, L.
The National Woolgrowers’ Association of SA (NWGA) is a
producers’ organisation and represents wool farmers of South
Africa. These members produce more than 80% of the national
clip of just below 50 million kg/annum. The NWGA is one of
only a small number of producer organisations that has a
Production Advisory Service with qualified, experienced
field- and administrative personnel, focusing on wool sheep
farmer development in the commercial and emerging farming
sectors. This Production Advisory Service was established
within the structures of the NWGA in 1997 (from the former
Wool Board) and has been restructured to address the needs
of all wool sheep producers. Partnerships with various
role-players have subsequently been negotiated and
formalised. This paper aims to briefly discuss these
partnerships and to provide some insight into their role in
an extensive development approach.
SUCCESSES AND FAILURES AS EXPERIENCED BY NWK LTD WITH
RELATION TO PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Janse van Vuuren, A.
NWK Ltd is an agricultural company situated in the North
West Province. The main focus of this company is to provide
financing, production inputs and agricultural related
services, as well as grain handling and marketing services
to farmers. Since 1994 a growing number of developing
farmers in the province have emerged – all with the same
basic support needs. Of these, financing of production
inputs proved to be the major constraint in their
development and many were not able to make any progress in
farming because of the lack of funds. Other constraints that
were identified include a lack of knowledge, insufficient
training and a seriously insufficient and broken down
mechanisation ability. These constraints and the fact that
NWK could not handle the challenges alone, led NWK to reach
out to other role players in financing and agriculture with
the hope to get specialists on board in order to curb the
effect of the constraints. A number of valuable partnerships
were formed and the project is now regarded as a successful
agricultural development programme.
Keywords: developing agriculture, partner, training,
COLLABORATION BETWEEN CRI AND THE LIMPOPO DEPARTMENT OF
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation
and no abstract is available.
SENWES AS A PARTNER IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Du Toit, J.
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation
and no abstract is available.
ROLE OF MENTORSHIP IN COTTON COMMODITY ORGANISATION
Macaskill, P. Q.
Visualise a 3-legged African cooking pot steaming on a fire
and see the parallel with successful cotton farming;
THE INVESTIGATION OF PARTNERSHIP MODELS IN SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
A CASE STUDY:
ILAM PROVINCE. IRAN
Poursaeed Alireza, Mirdamadi, Said Mehdi, Malekmohammadi,
Eraj, Hossaini, Said Jamal Farajollah Abstract Selection of
the appropriate partnership models for agricultural
development has become an important issue in Iran. Using
data from Ilam province of Iran, the purpose of this paper
is to use analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for selecting
between the three competing partnership models (private,
public and cooperative) which have been developed based on
the general tenets. Environmentalists, board members of
rural cooperative, rural development and experts from Ilam
(Agricultural Organization, University, Natural resource and
environmental organization) participated in application of
AHP to this study.
They applied AHP to
determine the priority of Private, Public and cooperative
partnership models based sustainable agricultural
development. Each group determined the priority of the three
models for sustainable agricultural development. The
findings indicated that ecological, social, Economical and
Cultural criteria are the most important criteria for
sustainable agriculture of Iran.
analysis was carried out to determine the critical factors
that affected the priority of alternatives. The results
indicated that Cooperative partnership based sustainable
agricultural development model has a higher priority as the
theoretical base of agricultural development of Iran.
LOCAL “IS LEKKER”: THE DYNAMICS OF LOCAL PARTNERSHIP
DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE COMMUNITIES, CRCE/UNIVERSITY OF
LIMPOPO, THE LIMPOPO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND LOCAL
Letsoalo, E. M. and Mollel, N. M.
This paper shares the experiences of the Centre for Rural
Community Empowerment’ in forging partnerships within rural
communities and between the Limpopo Department of
Agriculture and the local municipalities. CRCE have been
operating in two pilot sites, Ga-Mothiba and Mafefe rural
communities following three strategies viz; Action research,
Documentation and Networking. Through these three strategies
various structures within the two communities collaborated
with the university and the Limpopo department of
Agriculture in the development of their own communities.
The two communities established local forums where
traditional authorities, various community groups, local
service providers, local municipalities, CRCE and the
Department of Agriculture are members and partners in the
development process. The two forums developed into platforms
where the communities and service providers shared valuable
experiences and ideas.
Through this partnership two development centres have been
established within the two communities. One is a
multipurpose centre and the other is a youth development
centre. These two local forums are members of a regional
forum called Small Scale Farmers Networking Forum. The
learning's from the development of the partnership are
discussed in the paper.
PROMOTING PARTNERSHIPS IN EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
THROUGH EFFECTIVE LINKAGES
Düvel, G. H.
Today hardly anybody questions the appropriateness and even
necessity of partnerships in extension and rural
development. Differences in opinion still occur as to
whether partnership is seen as a normative goal as such or
still a transitional phase towards full ownership of the
development process by the communities or beneficiaries.
Anybody well acquainted with the practical extension
situation in South Africa will know that there is much room
for improvement in this regard, in fact it seems as if in
many cases mere lip-service is paid to partnerships in
extension. The assumed premise of this paper – with the
focus on the advisory or extension agent and farmer (client)
partnership – is that effective partnerships are only
possible and will only be successful if the necessary
institutional and linkage structures are in place.
After clarifying the relationship between the concepts of
partnership and participation, and providing a brief
motivational background regarding the necessity of
partnerships between service providers and community, the
principles of effective linkage structures are presented
with empirical support and evidence from a national research
study in search of appropriate extension approaches and
sponsored by the National Department of Agriculture (Düvel,
2002). The concepts of partnership and participation are
closely intertwined and not easy to separate from each
other, but the emphasis of this paper is – in line with the
topic of our conference – on partnership between advisory
agent and community (farmer), and partially on the
partnership between service providers.
USE OF INNOVATION SUPPORT FUNDS TO CREATE CONDITIONS FOR
SMALLHOLDER FARMERS TO INNOVATE: PRELIMINARY INSIGHTS FROM A
PILOT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Mudhara, M & Ngubane, N.
Overtime, smallholder farmers have adapted and developed
innovations to allow them to be productive under their own
difficult environments. Development practitioners have
realized the need to, not only take this knowledge into
consideration but to build upon it. The Farmer Support Group
(FSG), the outreach unit of the Centre for Environment,
Agriculture and Development at the University of KwaZulu-Natal
uses participatory action research to facilitate farmers to
identify and experiment with innovations to address their
problems. Furthermore, FSG and its partner organizations in
PROLINNOVA (a group of governmental and non-governmental
organizations seeking to promote local farmer innovations)
have identified the need to give farmers more space in which
they have greater ownership of the innovation process, i.e.,
identification and execution, propagation, with minimal
input from development agents. In South Africa, PROLINNOVA,
through FSG and its partners, is piloting an innovation
support facility for smallholder farmers. Through this
pilot, farmers are provided with financial resources for
them to conduct activities that can result in enhanced
innovativeness and the development of innovations.
This paper details the key elements in the process of
setting up a pilot innovation support fund, and the
institutional framework for the administration of the funds.
It also discusses the activities that have received support,
with particular attention to why they qualify to be
innovations, as opposed to ordinary practices. Experiences
and lessons to date, such as number of proposals submitted
for funding, nature of submissions, and strengths and
weaknesses of the activities proposed for enhancing
innovations and characterization of those who propose, are
PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND RURAL
DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF THE ISOYA RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
Jibowo, A. A.
To obtain significant results in improving the qualities of
lives of people in rural communities, establishing
partnerships between various development institutions is a
sine qua non. The purpose of this paper is to briefly
discuss partnerships in agricultural extension and rural
development activities in the Isoya Rural Development
Project, implemented by the Obafemi Awolowo University,
Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information used in the paper was based on
the experiences of the author as the Project Director for
six years, and a member of the Project Implementation
Committee for five years. The active life of the project was
11 years (1972-83). Literature on the project was also
consulted. Some data collected and analyzed between October
2008 and February 2009, to determine the perceived
effectiveness of the project, were also used. Three
categories of partners were involved in the project. These
included local partners that were the various academic
departments within the university, and traditional
authorities in the township that had jurisdiction over the
rural communities; State and Federal Government Ministries,
institutions and parastatal organizations; and international
partners. While all the partners benefited in one way or the
other from the partnership, the local people were the main
or target beneficiaries. The benefits derived included
learning improved crop production practices; formation and
management of cooperative associations; access to production
credit; guaranteed market for farm produce; improved health
services; functional literacy; use of appropriate
technology; improved goat production practices; improved
nutrition of children; home beautification; increased
incomes and levels of living. In conclusion, although
partnerships in agricultural extension and rural development
involve a number of institutions and organizations, the
leading partner has to play a major role in planning the
project, coordinating efforts of the partners, motivation of
other partners, evaluating accomplishments, and
sustainability of the project.
KNOWLEDGE AND UTILIZATION OF JOB ENRICHMENT TECHNIQUES AMONG
DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL OFFICERS IN BOTSWANA
Oladele, O. I., Subair, S. K. and Sebina, N. V.
The need for diversification of the economy from being
mineral dependent and the daunting food import bills in
Botswana have been the drive for the provision of extension
services to farmers. Agricultural sector is faced with
limited funds, inadequate skilled manpower to carry out
research and disseminate information to farmers; existing
staff are not motivated to perform at optimum level, hence
performance with productivity declines with time.
Structuring jobs and roles correctly is very important in
elevating the motivation of employees, which is addressed by
job enrichment which is an important ingredient to reinforce
the motivational factors. Using a random sampling technique,
this study examined the Knowledge and utilization of Job
enrichment techniques among District Agricultural Officers
in Botswana. Data were collected with a structured
questionnaire that has a reliability coefficient of 0.85
using the split-half technique and were analyzed with
frequency counts, percentages correlation and multiple
regressions. The result shows that the knowledge of job
enrichment techniques was moderate among district officers
as they are currently experience low extension agent farmer
ratio. The use of job enrichment techniques was facilitated
by the organization structure for extension delivery in
Botswana. Also, significant relationships were recorded
between knowledge and utilization of enrichment techniques
(r = 0.72) while important predictors of job enrichment
utilization are information sources on job enrichment (t =
2.79), educational level (t = 2.07), age (t = -2.86) and
years of experience (t = 2.89). The paper recommends that
training should be provide to District Agricultural Officers
on job enrichment and other job related concepts in order to
improve performance among extension agents.
FACILITATING PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND
COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMERS THROUGH MOBILE PHONES USAGE IN
KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
Ogunlade, I, Adebayo, S. A. and Ogundiran, T. J.
The demand for poultry product is on the increase in Nigeria
due to the ban placed on its importation by the government.
Commercial Poultry Farmers (CPF) are farmers who are faced
with management challenges to meet with demand. Public
extension agency which offers free services to Nigerian
farmers on all aspects of agricultural development have
limited in personnel which could not cover all farmers.
Mobile phones have the potential of bridging the gap between
service providers ‘and commercial poultry farmers thereby
reducing management expenditure and provide avenue for easy
access in innovations and markets. This study therefore
examined the attitudes and training needs of commercial
poultry farmers to the use of mobile phones in Kwara State,
Eighty percent of the members of Poultry Farmers Association
(PFA) of Nigeria Kwara State chapter were randomly selected
for the study. A validated questionnaire which covered the
socio-economic characteristics of farmers, attitude to the
use of mobile phones and training needs was administered to
The socio-economic characteristics measured consist of
gender, age, household size, marital status, years in
poultry business, type of poultry produce and ownership of
mobile phones. The attitude was measured with 8 items of use
of mobile phones for poultry management practices placed on
5 point Likert type scale of Strongly Agree (SA) to Strongly
Disagree ?(SD), respondents having a minimum score of 9
points and maximum of 45 points. Thereafter the items were
ranked. Training needs were determined by using FAO’s scale
which cumulate the mean score frequency of use and
difficulties in the use of mobile phones. The data were
analyzed, by using frequency, percentage, ranking, mean and
multiple regression analysis.
The finding show that majority of the commercial poultry
farmers were 60% males, had household size of 6 people, 90%
married, more than 84.6 is who had post secondary education,
59.6% had put in more than 5 years in poultry business,
about 40% produced a combination of layers, and
broilers/cockerels, majority (75%) had Nokia mobile phones
and identified cheapness, hardiness and durability as
important reason for their choice, in all, farmers had
positive attitude to the use of mobile phones with sourcing
market for poultry products ranked 1st, booking production
stock ranked 2nd, procurement of feed/ feed ingredients
ranked 3rd among others. The farmers need training on
browsing, calculating, setting alarm for operations and
taking pictures for documentary purpose. Their brand of
mobile phones serves as barriers to these services.
The paper concluded that commercial poultry farmers in Kwara
State, Nigeria have positive attitude to the use of Mobile
Phones for efficient production management.
Communication is an essential ingredient for making and
sustaining partnership. It recommended that training be
mounted by extension agency for commercial poultry farmers
on browsing, saving information and taking of pictures for
FARMER-LED DOCUMENTATION AS A POSSIBLE TOOL FOR IMPROVED
PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND FARMERS: A CASE
STUDY IN MAFIKENG
Vorster, H. J., Letty, B., Malinga, M. & Chiloane, N.
Farmer-led documentation (FLD) enables farmers to document
their experiences and helps them share these experiences
with others. At a food security pilot project between 4
communities near Mafikeng, ARC-Roodeplaat and NW DACE, new
crop technologies were tested using participatory selection
and evaluation techniques at Kgora Resource Centre. In the
second phase farmers took their training and crops to their
communal gardens to evaluate in their own local situations.
ARC-Roodeplaat and the South Africa branch of PROLINNOVA (an
international network that promotes local innovation and
farmer-led approaches to research and development) decided
to co-ordinate efforts with the Mafikeng stakeholders to
test the use of FLD in North-West as part of NW DACE's
introduction to participatory, farmer-based extension
techniques. The paper discusses the possibility of FLD as a
tool to help strengthen farmer-extension-research
partnerships, as well as the lessons learnt from this
A workshop was held to train all stakeholders on what FLD
encompasses and its potential. Extension officers received
training on FLD project planning. Farmers were trained on
the use of digital camera's, general camera maintenance and
principles for taking of effective photographs. They also
participated in a session that focused on identifying
subject matter for documentation, based on the farming
activities that they envisaged being involved with. Farmers
then had an opportunity to take photographs and the results
were reviewed and discussed the following day. Plans were
then made for photographs to be downloaded once a month when
ARC personnel visited the communities to monitor progress
with the farming activities and provide training where
needed. Community members identified digital photographs
they wanted to print (each member may develop 50 photographs
over the growing season) and these were to be used to share
their experiences, innovations and lessons with each other
during the feedback sessions.
There was initial confusion on the use of the camera, with
many farmers not entirely sure on what was expected from
them in terms of subject matter as well as the process of
sharing the cameras .The distance of both ARC and PROLINNOVA
partners from Mafikeng was an inhibiting factor as this
could only be addressed two months later. Prioritisation of
extension agendas and lack of access to a laptop tended to
limit the inputs that the local extension officer could
provide in terms of supporting the FLD process. In addition,
since extension personnel had only been introduced to the
concept together with the farmers, extensive support was not
possible. After PROLINNOVA partners met with the farmers in
their fields and had more discussions about the concept of
FLD within their own context, farmers started documenting
their experiences with more confidence. The quality of the
photographs, considering that none of the community members
had ever taken a photograph before, improved dramatically.
The PROLINNOVA partners will have an interim meeting with
the farmers to address any problems they may be
encountering, prior to a feedback session that is to take
place one week before the conference in May. The outcomes of
the feedback session will be included in the results
discussed in the paper.
Utilising FLD effectively as a tool to stimulate sharing and
feedback needs a strong, easily accessible, support system
for farmers. This ensures that problems are addressed fast
and that no documentation opportunities are lost while
uncertainty or equipment failure is experienced. Farmers
started to realise the extent of their own innovativeness.
They recognised that they have developed their own ways of
doing things and were eager to share this with others. This
became possible with the documentation process as they did
not lose the opportunity to share experiences when visitors
visited at the wrong time in their production cycle. FLD is
an excellent tool to help farmers and service providers
share their knowledge, enthusiasm and point of view with
each other. This helps the groups to understand each other
better and facilitates a more participatory, needs-based
approach to training and development.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE MNGCUNUBE “HANDS-ON” MENTORSHIP PROGRAMME
FOR SMALL-SCALE STOCK FARMERS IN THE EASTERN CAPE
Jordaan, A. J., Sissons, D. and Blaker, J.
The Elundini livestock improvement programme covers
livestock owners in 80 villages of the Elundini Local
Municipality in the Eastern Cape. The Livestock Project is
in full conformity with the Ukhahlamba Growth and
Development Strategy (GDS) and the District IDP.
Since its conception in April 2007 the project by end 2008
had reached 359,764 SSU through a schedule of visits to 662
villages at which farmer attendance had totalled 7,697. The
actual number of farmers then was 2,541 and SSU were
136,416, noting that the same farmers and livestock come to
more than one village visit so attendance figures are
higher. Participating farmers spent R25,886 on their stock
in the above-mentioned period.
This paper provides a critical review of the operational
structures and people actively in daily contact with the
farmers; the methods of data capturing and data analyses are
evaluated; the impact on individual farmers and the impact
on the economy of the region are evaluated. The research
concluded that the results of the mentorship programme by
far exceeded the expectations, to such a degree, that the
reliability of the data was under suspicion. It became clear
during the research that data capturing had been done with
precision and great care.
Data for the first 18 months of the project clearly showed a
reduction of mortality rates for sheep and goats from more
than 20% to as low as 3% per annum. Lamb weaning and kid
weaning rates were approximately one lamb for every two ewes
Individual farmers were able to increase their annual cash
income from as little as R1,440 to R20,577 per annum. The
net financial gain of all the project farmers adds up to
more than R6 million per annum.
This research concluded that the hands-on approach and
strict discipline as basis for farmer mentorship is an
example of good practice to be followed by extension workers
and other developmental agencies. The results were evident
from the onset of the project and the immediate financial
gain to farmers ensured their continued participation in the
project. In addition to the direct benefits to farmers, new
business opportunities were created for village mentors.
The paper also proposes that the principle of free extension
should be re-visited since small-scale farmers are willing
to pay for quality and reliable services.
PARTNERING TO GAIN CONTROL OVER DISEASE IN THE MPUMALANGA
SUGARCANE GROWING REGION
Mkhwanazi, S. Bhengu, B. & Mavimbela, F.
The irrigated sugarcane growing region of Mpumalanga
province in South Africa produces a substantial portion of
the sugarcane grown in the country. Severe ‘smut’
infestations were threatening the entire region with a
potential to spread to other regions and cause substantial
crop losses. These losses could be catastrophic and would
deprive farmers of income as well as reduce the mill
throughput, threatening the ability of more resistant
varieties to survive the pressure.
The combined efforts of TSB milling (TSB), the Department of
Agriculture and Land Administration (DALA), the South
African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI), and the
affected sugarcane farmers (growers) in a partnership
campaign against this sugarcane smut epidemic has turned the
dire situation around in a relatively short period of time.
This paper introduces the significance of the region,
defines the problem, and the methodology that was used by
extension workers to educate, provide training and carry out
field action to make the change, effectively saving an
NATURE AND EXTENT OF GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS IN THE
MANAGEMENT OF VELD FIRES IN THE WATERBERG DISTRICT DURING
Bornman, M. & Nealer, E. J.
Integrated public governance is one of the challenges of
Government. The importance of governmental departments, NGOs
and stakeholders working together in a coordinated and well
managed manner in times of natural and man-initiated
disasters, cannot be emphasized enough.
During 2008, in the handling of veld fires in the respective
areas of Alma, Rust de Winter and Dwaalboom in the Waterberg
District of the Limpopo Province, different scenarios of
integrated public governance manifested themselves. This
paper will, based on the overarching governmental
legislation regarding agricultural public service rendering,
also identify the place and role of governmental relations
as vehicle to bring about more effective, efficient,
economic and sustainable public management on the
grass-roots level of a regional area. The vital role of the
Agricultural Extension Officer (AEO) and his / her
supporting office in the management of agricultural related
crises will also be highlighted.
In order to judge the nature and extent of the
aforementioned, the outbreak of serious veld fires in the
three areas of the District will be described from which
some logical conclusions will be drawn and valid
recommendations identified which hopefully will achieve more
effective, efficient, economic and sustainable integrated
regional public governance and cooperation during future
risks and disasters in the Province.
A CHARACTERISATION OF SUCCESS FACTORS OF PROJECTS FUNDED BY
THE COMPREHENSIVE AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT PROGRAMME IN THE FREE
Idsardi, E., Jordaan, H. van Schalkwyk, H. D. Abstract
The aim of the Department of Agriculture’s (DoA)
Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP) is to
provide financial post-settlement support to the
beneficiaries of land reform. To date, no comprehensive,
formal evaluation of the Programme has been conducted at
During 2007, 109 CASP funded projects in the Free State
province were assessed. This assessment included a
questionnaire of which the data was used to develop a rating
system on the viability of the selected projects. The
overall aim of this study is to gain insights in the
characteristics of successful and sustainable agricultural
development projects to ultimately refocus support rather
than predicting success.
A regression analysis was conducted to explain the variation
in the success ratings. The results show that eleven
variables have a significant influence on success. A
comprehensive financial administration system was found to
be the most significant variable characterising projects
with a higher score on the success and sustainability scale.
JOINT PLAN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, CAN IT BE ACHIEVED?
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT (ARD) TRAINING
Netshipale, A. J., Mashiloane, M. L., & Motsei, M. L.
It is known that livelihoods of the poor can not be
sectoralised and addressed by focusing only on individual
developmental dimensions. Developmental agenda necessitates
cooperation and contribution from various institutions, if
they are to yield desirable results. The question that
remains is: can a joint plan for sustainable development be
attained? This paper examined the phases in the joint
developmental planning process of the Agricultural Research
for Development (ARD) implemented in Kono and Khuis
restitution farms of the Northern Cape in 2005. Focus was on
challenges associated with initiation, facilitation and
consolidation of the joint developmental plan and a review
of other related papers on development initiatives. An
objective review of the plan was conducted. Problem and
proposed solution identification were indicated as
constraints of the initiation phase. Ability or skills
limitation and logistics were indicated for facilitation
while conflict of objectives and representatives’ authority,
were indicated for consolidation. It was concluded that a
joint plan for sustainable development can be achieved given
the alleviation of the discussed challenges.
MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES AND LEADER¬SHIP STYLES ASSOCIATED
WITH SUCCESSFUL GAME RANCH MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN CAPE,
Louw, L., Louw, M. J. & Lategan, F. S.
Paper was not available when CD’s were burnt.
PARTNERSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOP¬MENT: LESSONS FROM THE
NEW ZEALAND EXPERIENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
Botha, C. A. J.
The paper provides background to partnerships in
agricultural development from a post-privatisation
perspective, using New Zealand as a case study. Agriculture
is important to New Zealand as it contributes about 20% of
national GDP. Two large philosophical shifts occurred
simultaneously in New Zealand: one in land use and the other
in extension. There was shift from agricultural production
to productivity and a shift from technology transfer to
participation. Both were significant. Partnerships in
agricultural production are funded through central and local
government. In addition there are also industry
organisations and consultants that also contribute to these
partnerships though their own networks and funding
arrangements. Agricultural productivity is well looked after
through these partnerships but it has been shown that there
is a gap in the New Zealand R&D system in terms of
consultants and their interaction with the RD&E system.
Agricultural consultants are playing a minimal role in
proactive environmental extension market forces in this area
are weak. The New Zealand experience demonstrates that
private agricultural consultants will fill the gap left by
government extension services in terms of supporting farmers
in their decision making about productivity improvements.
However, privatised extension can also result in
discontinuities – particularly in relation to the adoption
of public and industry funded R&D and in relation to
addressing environmental issues.
ALTERNATIVE SUPPLIERS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN
MALI: IMPEDIMENTS TO SUSTAINABLE COLLABORATION
Akeredolu, M. & Koné, M.
This paper identifies alternative service providers of
agricultural extension services in Mali to include: NGOs,
farmer organizations, public and Para public structures,
training institutions and research institutions. An analysis
of the various forms of collaboration between government
agricultural extension system and NGOs, farmer
organizations, public, semi public and research institutions
is also presented in the paper. Also discussed are the roles
of research institutions and public extension service in
meeting the special training needs of agents in charge of
Agricultural Extension. The paper also analyzes the existing
impediments to effective private/public collaborations in
the Malian context.
These analyses show that private providers of agricultural
extension services are many and varied, and cover the entire
Malian territory. The NGOs are numerous and active in
several areas including agriculture, breeding, fishing,
forestry with agro-business firms much fewer. In addition,
majority of the NGOs, farmer organizations, public para-
public institutions, training and research institutions play
important roles in the delivery of agricultural technologies
and techniques as well as offer opportunities for
collaboration. However, majority of these structures
especially NGOs do not have sufficient financial means to
meet training needs of their agents and producers.
Impediments such as political, structural, financial and
strategic hinder collaboration between service providers in
Mali. All service providers along the value chain including
processing and marketing should be recognized, with more
community participation in creating a network of service
providers in Mali.
ACTION RESEARCH: A PRACTICAL STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE FOR
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROFESSIONALS
Mutimba, J. & Khaila, S.
Agricultural extension professionals lag behind their
counterparts in research and training institutions with
regard to conducting research and generating new knowledge.
This is mainly because conventional research methods are not
appropriate for field practitioners whose main preoccupation
is improving livelihoods of farming communities. However the
success of field extensionists depends on their ability to
identify and exploit opportunities for improvement. They
therefore need research methods and approaches that enable
them to generate reliable data and information which they
can use to solve farmers’ problems. Given that the role of
extension is basically to ensure that farmers have
appropriate knowledge and skills, there is need to
continuously find out whether farmers indeed have
appropriate knowledge and skills, whether they apply
appropriate knowledge and skills and reasons why they may
not be applying appropriate knowledge and skills. Based on
the findings, the extensionists will be able to identify the
action required to improve upon the existing situation. This
calls for knowledge and skills in action oriented research.
This paper provides simple, easy to follow, step-by-step
guidelines which should be suitable for many situations in
extension research – whether one is researching adoption of
an enterprise, an extension approach or the functioning of a
farmer organization. The guidelines are based on the
experiences we have had from running in-service,
custom-made, degree programmes for mid-career extension
professionals at Bunda College of Agriculture, University of
Malawi, as well as at other universities in East Africa.
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES AND TACTICS FOR EXTENSION
Mudau, K.S., Geyser, M., Nesamvuni, A.E., & Belemu, N.D.
Extension recovery plan breathed new life into extension.
This new initiative by the Department of Agriculture (DOA)
has already left a mark as extension officers are mobilized
to register for junior degrees and other relevant short
courses. The inducement has also been coming through
bursaries and other support services towards extension. In
Limpopo province, extension services remain a key support
services for the development of effective farmer
organizations and suitable technological innovations. While
the DOA intervention towards extension would have remarkable
impact in reviving extension, the challenge remains as to
how much would be the impact on the ground. Would the
success of the program be translated into enhanced service
delivery? Effective and efficient extension in terms of
justifiable goals should be the responsibility of any
extension services. With the existing situation, for them to
join the main stream of South African economy, the
smallholder farmers are expected to produce sufficiently and
work as good entrepreneurs. The study shares on the
successes of the recovery plan when coupled with relevant
extension methodologies and strategic partnerships. The
study shows how Vhembe and Mopani districts in Limpopo
province benefited from embracing commodity approach, value
chain analysis and participatory extension approaches.
HOW TO DO RESEARCH POSTERS
This Paper is in the form of a MS PowerPoint Presentation
and no abstract is available.
FARMERS’ STRATEGIES AND MODES OF OPERATION IN SMALL HOLDER
IRRIGATION SCHEMES OF SOUTH AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF MAMUHOHI
IRRIGATION SCHEME IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE
Mudau, K.S., Geyser,M., & Nesamvuni, A.E.
The overall objective is to assess the sustainability and
more specifically, the economic viability of smallholder
irrigation schemes in South Africa in a context of
irrigation transfer. The White Paper on Agriculture (1995)
has clearly indicated the government ‘s intention to
withdraw subsidies previously enjoyed by farmers and to
ensure that real cost of natural resources are reflected in
the pricing of resources in order to discourage abuse. This
has resulted in the enacting of new laws like the New Water
Act of 1998, which is aimed at sustainable water management.
This includes the rehabilitation of infrastructure before
transfer and the establishment of farmers Water Users
Associations, which are to take over ownership and
collective management of the schemes. These issues pose a
challenge to extension. The challenge is whether such
farmers will be able to pay for water and other services and
make decisions collectively with all the constraints they
are faced with. For instance, they lack money, expertise and
lack good cohesion among themselves. Challenges and
uncertainties like these also motivated this study. The
study concluded that there is a need for certain economic,
technical and institutional evolutions in the cropping
systems if farmers have to match changes brought by the
revitalisation of irrigation schemes, which include
irrigation management transfer.
FARMER PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS
HYPOGAEA L.) VARIETIES: AN ON-FARM EXPERIENCE IN RESIDUAL
MOISTURE SITUATIONS OF ORISSA
Satish-Kumar, G. D.
India has nearly 100 m operational holdings, of which over
75% belong to the small farm category (i.e. 2 ha or below in
size). The farmers who operate these holdings work under
complex, diverse and risk prone (CDR) environments. The
smaller the farm, the greater is the need for marketable
surplus, so that the farm family can have some cash income.
Consequently adoption of improved varieties, improved
package of practices and value addition become essential for
strengthening the household food and livelihood security in
rural India. However, it appears from the socio-economic
surveys that the advances in breeding improved varieties had
not benefited in increasing the adoption of the improved
varieties by the CDR farmers.
After the decades of formal plant breeding efforts, the
adoption of high yielding varieties (HYVs) is disappointing
not only for resource poor farmers, but for India as a
whole. Farmers in the marginal agricultural environments are
not exploiting an enormous potential economic benefit from
the adoption of HYVs. If 50% of the farmers having average
farm holdings were to adopt HYVs in 10% of the districts
that currently have less than 50% adoption, the increase in
production would have an estimated value, which runs into
billions. Extrapolating the logic to whole India, the
economic return from a higher adoption of HYVs is much
The HYVs cultivated by farmers in India are about 15 years
older than in a very efficient system, suchas UK where it is
3 years. In groundnut the average age of HYVs adopted by the
farmers is more than 15 years for whole of India and more
than 9 years for developed States suchas Gujarat and more
than 20 years for States suchas Orissa. Hence, there are
good reasons to employ the innovative approaches suchas
Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) to improve the
appropriateness of the varieties to the CDR farmers. FPR is
an approach, which involves encouraging farmers to engage in
experiments in their own fields so that they can learn,
adopt new technologies and spread them to other farmers.
When the scientists and the farmers work together, to
improve the agriculture by learning from each other, they
begin to understand the differences between their views and
knowledge systems. Working together, respecting each other's
freedom results in bridging the gap between these
differences creates opportunities to develop solutions that
respond to the requirements and felt needs of farmers.
Solutions oriented towards felt-needs of farmer based on
their freedom to choose have greater potential for adoption
and for achieving desirable changes in their livelihoods.
The farmer's participatory varietal evaluation offers
alternative choices of varieties to farmers and verifies the
performance of improved genotypes under farmer's conditions
in comparison to the research station trails. The farmer has
the liberty to choose from a basket of choices based on
his/her own criteria. The paper describes our experiences
with the FRP approach.
Groundnut is a major oilseed crop of Orissa, which accounts
for 57% of total oil seed production of the state. The total
area under groundnut in the state was 0.90 lakh ha, of which
0.52 lakh ha was grown during rabi season under residual
soil moisture situation immediately after harvest of kharif
rice. The major constraint for rabi groundnut cultivation
was lack of awareness on improved varieties and
non-availability of quality seed. Farmers grow traditional
variety AK 12-24. Hence, the present study was conducted
with the following objectives 1. To identify suitable
groundnut variety for residual soil moisture situations of
Coastal Orissa during rabi season using FPR approach and 2.
To demonstrate the potential of NRCG seed storage method.
The study was funded by the National Agricultural Technology
Project under the sub-project "Management of coastal
agro-ecosystem affected by super cyclone of Orissa".
The two districts Cuttuck and Puri from Orissa state, one
block from each district, Ersama and Astaranga, respectively
were selected based on the maximum extent of damage caused
due to the cyclone. Eight villages from each block making a
total of sixteen villages were selected based on maximum
extent of damage due to the cyclone. The farmers were
selected by two-stage sampling method. A total of three
hundred and ninety-two OFTs were conducted for two years
during 2002-03 and 2003-04. The farmers were provided four
varieties of groundnut viz., Smruti, GG 2, TAG 24 and K 134.
These varieties were compared with the farmers’ traditional
variety AK 12-24. The data were collected through a
semi-structured interview schedule by personal interview of
the farmers. The descriptive statistics such frequency and
percentages were used to analyze the data. The yield gap (YG)
and yield gap index (YGI) were estimated.
The discussions with individual farmers during 2002-04
indicated that farmers from Cuttuck expressed a very strong
overall preference for the Smruti over their own variety, as
well as other improved varieties tried under the OFTs. The
results of these comparisons showed that the reasons for
this preference in Ersama block were the relative earliness
of this variety combined with its higher pod yield. During
the group discussions farmers further indicated that Smruthi
had higher haulm yield, bold seeds and tolerant to
insect-pests such as Aphids and Jassids. The farmers
post-harvest yield measurements confirmed these results.
It is our experience that the type of OFTs described here,
combined with an attitude towards learning and understanding
from farmers by researchers, provides new information for
assessing the overall usefulness of an improved variety. The
present study reiterated the usefulness of FPR as an
extension research tool. The farmers were provided with a
basket of options to choose from, based on their wisdom and
experimentation they preferred Smruti, GG 2 and TAG 24.
Apart, from increased pod yield, farmers considered the
fodder yield, early maturity and suitability to their
specific situation as the criteria for their decision.
In addition to FPR, the support and active participation of
state department of agriculture is needed to improve the
adoption of improved groundnut varieties. The NRCG storage
method has to be popularized in the region to makeup for the
non-availability of quality seed. Further, the short
duration varieties of rice (to facilitate early sowing of
groundnut during rabi) may be popularized in the region.
Thus, FPR is of particular use in the identification of
relevant research issues and in the adaptation of
technologies to specific local circumstances. Farmer's
participation is a key element to successful FPR, but it
takes the unwavering commitment of the researchers to make
it an effective extension research tool.
31. IMPACTS OF THE SUPERMARKET REVOLUTION ON SMALL-SCALE
FARMERS IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL
Mongane, T. H. E.
The rise of supermarkets within the developing world has
grown significantly from the mid-1990s. This growth/trend
was largely spurred by factors such as an increase in
foreign direct investment and changes in consumers’ taste
and preferences. Currently, supermarkets are taking control
of the marketing of f, and impose their own standards on
producers. In most cases only commercial farmers are able to
meet these standards and therefore reap the rewards of
operating within this market, whilst small-scale farmers
cannot. This paper explores the impacts of the supermarket
revolution on small-scale farmers and address how the
extension agent can meaningfully play a role in assisting
small-scale and emerging farmers access these markets.